Contact Information:

Amy Calderon

oceanairy@gmail.com

Title:

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

Primary Subject Area and Grade Level:

Science: Biology I / grades 9-10th

Overview:

During this lesson, students will learn about Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. The students will be completing various assignments along with an interactive computer animated quiz to compare and contrast Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic, plant, and animal cells. The individual cells discussed have unique structures and organelles for the obtainment and processing of energy. Students are required to relate structure to function for the components of these cells. Instructor will use various websites to explain each cell so students are able to understand the similarities and differences between the cells. Most multicellular organisms are composed of organ systems whose structures reflect their particular function. These studies are a part of the Common Core Standards that students are required to learn and understand. Technology is incorporated to exhibit how education is obtained virtually as well as orally. Because of these two tactics, students will be able to identify the major parts of plant and animal cells including the cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and their basic functions.

Approximate Duration:

Two consecutive class periods, Monday, November 4th and Tuesday, November 5th, 2013. 1:15 hours per class period;

Total 2:30 hours

Class Format:
Students are not seated in any order. They are free to choose their own seats where they have stayed thus far. When students come together for group projects, they are assigned into pairs of two or four. Just go around the classroom and assign numbers for full inclusion, never pick a group of students who sit together. If an issue is to arrive, please reseat student in the appropriate area. The lesson will be face-to-face as well as online.
Common Core Educational Technology Standards Addressed:
SC.912.L.14.2: Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animal cells. Explain the roll of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier.
SC.912.L.14.3: Compare and contrast the general structures of plant and animal cells. Compare and contrast the general structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
SC.912.L.14.ln.2: Identify the major parts of plant and animal cells, including the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm, and their basic functions.
SC.912.L.14.Pa.1: They will match parts of common living things to their function.
SC.912.L.14.Su.2: Recognize that cells have different parts and each has a function.

Interdisciplinary Connections:

Reading, Writing, Vocabulary, Life Science, Technology, and Critical Thinking

Prior Knowledge:

SC.912.L.14.4: Compare and contrast structure and function of various types of microscopes.
SC.912.N.2.4: Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change. Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation. Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability.
Outcomes/Objectives:
1.) Students will be able to compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
2.) Students will be able to label a plant, animal, and a prokaryotic cell.
3.) Students will be able to identify the internal and external functions of each type of cell.
4.) Students will have a complete understanding of why each cell has the structure it does and what they contribute to the life of the cell.
5.) Due to worksheets, vocabulary words, online quiz, augmented reality, and prezi presentation students should be able to compare/contrast, label, and identify the cells with 70% accuracy.


Technologies and Other Materials /Resources:
-Resource for online quiz:
Wiley.com. Wiley Publications, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm>.
· Resource for lecture information and cell organelle worksheet:
Sullivan, Jim. Cellsalive.com. Quill Graphics, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm>.
· Resource for Prezi presentation:
Muskopf, Shannon. "The Biology Corner." The Biology Corner RSS 20. Biology Corner, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.biologycorner.com/>.
· Resource for student handouts and vocabulary words:
Cannarella, Dustin. "Resource Preview." Animal vs. Plant & Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells Lesson to Develop Students Ability to Identify Similarities and Differences between Animal and Plant... CPALMS, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.cpalms.org/Resources/PublicPreviewResource27162.aspx>.
· Resource for student homework:
Anderson, Paul. "Notifications." Transport Across the Cell Membrane Paul Andersen Describes How Cells Move Materials across the Cell Membrane. All Movement Can Be... Paul Anderson, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.cpalms.org/Resources/PublicPreviewResource42287.aspx>.
· Instructor will need Prezi account, Augment app, computer, smart board, 30 copies of each handout for students,
Internet access and a basic understanding of technology.
· Students will need smartphone and/or tablet, Augment app, computers, pencil and/or pen, Biology notebook for notes and worksheet organizational skills, book, and a basic understanding of technology.
Activities/Tasks (Lesson Procedure):

Lesson Procedure: For Day 1

  • Introduction/Gain Attention/Ice Breaker

· Obtain the students attention by stating, “Good morning/afternoon science explorers”. They respond rather quickly so time will not be wasted. Est. time of greeting, 3:00 minutes
  • Outcomes and Relevance

· Teacher explains how this lesson will introduce students to Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells. Students will be able to familiarize themselves with the structures of the cells and what type of “job” each cell is required to perform. Students will also be able to understand how each cell functions in its habitat. The worksheets handed out to students will assist in building knowledge based on an understanding of the Cell Theory. Using augmented reality will reinforce the connections the students will make from the information obtained in the book to reality. This application will show a cell in 3-D and gives the students a better visualization of the organelles contained in a cell. By the end of the lesson, the students will have an understanding of the purpose for the types of cells discussed.
  • Motivating Introduction

· State to students, “Please grab your smart devices and open the Augment application and choose the cyanobacteria cell. View the cell for 2:30 minutes. Pay attention to the shape, size, colors, organelles, and structure of the bacteria viewed. After time is up for the Cyanobacteria, scroll down and find the bacteria. You will have 2:30 minutes as well to view this cell. Also, pay attention to the shape, size, colors, organelles, and structure of the bacteria viewed. Write down in your notebooks your observations. After the timer stops for the second cell we will go over your answers.” Est. time of activity: 10:00 minutes
  • Content of Lesson

· Before the motivation introduction, please review the previous day’s lesson. State to the students, “Friday was your test on the Cell Theory as well as the structures of a microscope. The tests will be graded and returned to you by the end of the week, either Thursday or Friday. There were only a few minutes to review about today’s lesson and what you would be learning. Are there any questions about the exam or the grading procedure?” If there are no questions, then begin with the augmented reality application. Est. time of review: 5:00 minutes

· After students have viewed the cells in 3-D, review what they witnessed. This is when the Prezi presentation will begin. Please handout these papers and explain what they are and inform copies are posted on Edmodo (LMS):
- First handout is the Assessment: Pre-Test: Est. time of test: 3:00 minutes (1 min per question)
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1fDMsvxW2Qk21Q6Ezizn5nPgY7dTSS_6e-FOHo0Avh3s/edit?usp=sharing
-This is a pre-test to assess how many students looked ahead and studied. Answers: B, D
-Instruct students to place pre-test in their notebooks for future study material.
- Next handout is the Vocabulary Words: Est. time of explanation: 2:00 minutes
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1syqRY0Wqw2Ij-6pfQAv11I6he28yWsryhuC6fhEAGHU/edit?usp=sharing
- Inform the students this is for homework to look up in their Biology books in chapter 4, page 158. Students must hand this in by Thursday, November 7th so it may be returned by Friday, November 8th. Inform them the sooner the better to turn in because there are two more assignments that need to be turned in as well.

· Next is the Prezi which should be up on the computer and ready to present: http://prezi.com/mogoucfp1x3j/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy

1.) Open to slide one and state, “We begin with the simplest of life forms, the Prokaryotic cell.
2.) Continue with presentation and stop by slide 17. Est. time of slide viewing and description: 33-40 minutes.

  • Closure and Review:
· Have students reopen their Augment app on the smartphones/tablets and open the bacteria cell and review the organelles. This is the time to take questions from students who may not understand the topics. Have them open their books to page 158. The prokaryotic cells are discussed on the next three pages with photos to identify different strains of bacteria. Read aloud the highlighted passages and make sure the information makes sense. Review the Q&A sections on page 160. Answers are in the teacher’s edition.
Higher Level Thinking Skills Noted
· After what we have learned today, why couldn’t we survive with only prokaryotic cells in our bodies?”


Lesson Procedure: For Day Two

  • Introduction/Gain Attention/Ice Breaker

· Obtain the students attention by stating, “Good morning/afternoon science explorers”. They respond rather quickly so time will not be wasted. Est. time of greeting, 3:00 minutes

  • Outcomes and Relevance

· Teacher explains how this lesson will introduce students to Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells. Students will be able to familiarize themselves with the structures of the cells and what type of “job” each cell is required to perform. Students will also be able to understand how each cell functions in its habitat. The worksheets handed out to students will assist in building knowledge based on an understanding of the Cell Theory. Using augmented reality will reinforce the connections the students will make from the information obtained in the book to reality. This application will show a cell in 3-D and gives the students a better visualization of the organelles contained in a cell. By the end of the lesson, the students will have an understanding of the purpose for the types of cells discussed.

  • Motivating Introduction

· State to students, “Please grab your smart devices and open the Augment application and choose plant cell. View the plant cell for 2:30 minutes. Pay attention to the shape, size, colors, organelles, and structure of the plant cell viewed. After time is up for the plant cell, scroll down and find the animal cell. You will have 2:30 minutes as well to view this cell. Also, pay attention to the shape, size, colors, organelles, and structure of the animal cell. Write down in your notebooks your observations. After the timer stops for the second cell we will go over your answers.” Est. time of activity: 10:00 minutes

  • Content of Lesson

· Before the motivation introduction, please review the previous day’s lesson. State to the students, “Yesterday was an intense introduction of the Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell. We went over the different organelles of a prokaryotic cell and defined there functions. We also discussed how the bacteria do not contain a nucleus, but they do have a cell membrane and cytoplasm. We began to discuss Eukaryotic cells and their four main parts, Nucleus, organelles, cell membrane, and cytoplasm. We left off on slide 17, the cell membrane. So far, does anyone have any questions or concerns?” If students have no questions, begin the Augment app. Est. time of activity: 5:00 minutes

· After students have viewed the cells in 3-D, review what they witnessed. This is when the Prezi presentation will begin. Please handout these papers and explain what they are:
-First handout is the Cell Organelle worksheet: Est. time of explanation: 5:00 minutes
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dvvFDLWcgZILtiwKM3zT4exXeOwr0Avnl7uaFP9Tebg/edit?usp=sharing
-This worksheet is to assess if the students understand the functions of the organelles.
-Instruct students this is homework/end-of-class work if they finish their assignment early. Also inform the students the assignment is due on Thursday, November 7th so it will be returned by Friday, November 8th.
-Students are to keep this worksheet to study for their next test. Inform them to keep it in their notebooks.
· Next is the Prezi which should be up on the computer and ready to present: http://prezi.com/mogoucfp1x3j/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy
Open Prezi to slide 17 and state, “We left off on the cell membrane.” And continue with the lesson until the slides are over. Est. time of Prezi: 25-30 minutes
· After the Prezi is concluded, up on the smart board is the website: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm. Review all the parts of the plant and animal cell. Point on a structure and the name will come up. Ask the class, “Who can tell me what this does?” After a few have answered then click on the definition. Keep this activity up until all areas have been covered. Est. time of id: 10:00 minutes
  • Closure and Review:
· Last assessment for the students is the quiz on the computers. Before class starts, have the computers on and on the website: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm
Inform the students this is a quiz for them to evaluate themselves. This way, they have an understanding of how much information they are retaining and what information they need to study a little harder. This is to be explained to them so they understand why they are taking this quiz and its importance. Ask students if they have any questions. Refer to the Biology book, page 161-171 for answers. Remind students due on Friday is the homework assigned online in Edmodo. This is the link: http://www.bozemanscience.com/a-tour-of-the-cell to show the site.
Higher Level Thinking Skills Noted

· After all we have learned today, why do you think we can only survive with animal cells and not plant cells?”
Relevance/Rationale:
· The outcomes to this lesson are very important. Students must learn about life science starting with the simplest forms of life and build upon their knowledge. One must understand it takes many small pieces to create a larger picture. Students need to understand the makings of plants and animal through them observing these cells. They also need to recognize each cell is particular to its host and there is a reason for every function.
· Students continue to build knowledge, not only cognitively, but also socially. Through the various assignments, students used advance technology working in groups to identify and relate structure of a cell to function of a cell. They were able to build off each other’s strengths and identify their own weaknesses. By working together, the intrinsic motivation begins to flourish. Students have the opportunity to become the facilitators of knowledge. By exhibiting these traits, students become comfortable and confident with the subjects studied.
Assessment Criteria for Success:
· How will you assess student learning throughout the lesson (formative)? By observing students as they complete their work, asking open-ended questions, and asking students questions to problems and having them state the answer in their own words. This way the instructor is able to measure intake of knowledge and observe who is in need of further assistance.
· How will you and your students know if they have successfully met the outcomes? Answered by the online tests, worksheets that are handed out, collected, and graded, class participation, and the most important the assessment assignment handed out at the end of each lesson. This is the best way of observing if a student has truly absorbed the knowledge presented. This assessment proves a student has made the connection from learning the knowledge to applying the knowledge.
· What specific criteria will be met in a successful product/process? Students will be able to utilize advance technology to educate themselves as well as their peers, describe the individual cells discussed and explain their function, and explain the process a cell goes through. All information will be compiled in their own individual notebook, which is a beginning portfolio for future classes.
· What does success on this lesson’s outcomes look like? Students should have a complete understanding of a Prokaryotic cell, a Eukaryotic cell, all the structures, and all of their functions. Success in the lesson will be witness through the online quiz and the test at the end of the chapter. In addition, students will feel comfortable discussing the lesson aloud in the room among their peers. When a student exhibits confidence in front of their peers, they tend to have a firm understanding of the material discussed.
· Describe any (summative) assessment to be used if applicable. The students are required to keep an organized notebook, end of the chapter exam, pre-tests at the beginning of a chapter, assessment worksheets, and class participation.

Explorations and Extensions:

1.) EXPLORATION: Students may want to visualize microscopic pictures of cells online or on their Augment app. Critical thinking skills will come into play here in deciding how to apply the knowledge gained. Will they want to swab their cheeks and look at the cells in the microscope? Will they want to view a thin slice of a certain plant under the microscope? The visual aspects of this lesson are endless. For students who finish early I have worksheets for coloring a plant or animal cell to study, they will be able to use their smart devices to view more cells on the Augment app, and end of chapter questions in the book will be assigned for further assist knowledge.
2.) EXTENSIONS: To re-teach this lesson to students who are not grasping the concept I would assign the coloring worksheet of the cells and their organelles. This way the student can use the textbook and class notes to make the connections. There are summaries of each section at the end of the sections and I would instruct the student to read these and explain to me what discovery they just made. If issues persist, then perhaps one-on-one time will be needed before or after class.

Modifications/Accommodations and Access for All:

If students have visual impairments, the tablets will be large enough for them to see the 3-D picture of the cells, the Prezi presentation will be on the smart board and instructor will be able to adjust the font size, and all students will be seated in the front two rows. If students have a hearing impairment, they will sit next to the speaker and instructor will speak into the microphone. For ESE students the instructor included many pictures to describe exactly what is being introduced throughout the lesson. If a student still does not understand, time will be allotted before and after class for questions as well as our LMS Edmodo. Each student will have a person messing system to email instructor with questions any time of the day or evening. Parents are welcome to submit questions as well. ELL students will have the same options as all other students mentioned.